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Rainwater Harvesting for Domestic Water Supply and Stormwater Mitigation

Supplying sufficient water to meet the ever-increasing water demands of the population, and to ensure equitable access to water, is one of the most urgent and important challenges faced bymost decision-makers in urban areas. Previous studies have demonstrated that urbanization gradually alters urban watershed hydrology by increasing both the quantity and peak of stormwater runoff to receiving water.

 

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Rainwater Harvesting and Wastewater Reuse in Peri-Urban Areas

Over the past decade, approaches to improve urban water cycle management have included water-saving devices inside the home, the use of rainwater tanks, reuse of treated wastewater and water sensitive urban design (WSUD) principles to manage stormwater runoff. When several integrated water cycle management (IWCM) options are implemented in unison at an allotment-scale, various levels of mains water savings, wastewater flow reductions and stormwater runoff reductions can be obtained. However, few studies in the literature have evaluated the impacts of implementing wastewater options for a non-sewered area already using rainwater tanks and onsite septic systems discharging to the environment.

 

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Rainwater catchment systems: an overview of the Italian situation

The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Italian situation concerning the use of rainwater catchment systems analysing the topic from different points of view. Daily rainfall data from more than three hundred meteorological stations, located homogenously on the Italian peninsular area, were collected and analysed. The efficiency of the rainwater tanks of different volumes in each station was tested. In the analysis, the different conditions were compared taking a typical user as pointof reference, characterised by the typical demand of each regional area.

 

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Rain-Net: Management of Rainwater Utilization Facilities under Ubiquitous Computing Environment

Although rainwater utilization has potential to solve many environmental problems in urban area, relatively few works have been done for developing technologies to improve the efficiency of rainwater utilization in large cities. Of particular interest in rainwater utilization isa proper management of decentralized facilities. Thus, this study aimed at developing technologies for efficient management of rainwater utilization system in urban areas (Rain-Net). Remote monitoring and real-time controlling of facilities were implemented in a full-scale rainwater utilization system.

 

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Rain Tanks Or Reticulated Water Supply?

Reticulated water supply systems, standard practice in urban areas, suffer from water losses due to leaks and pipe bursts, and for satisfactory service need a high level of investment and intervention. Due to growing concern over future water shortages in urban areas, localized measures such as rain tanks are being widely promoted as a more sustainable alternative: they can promote improved water management through behavioural changes, thereby reducing the overall consumption.

 

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Rain garden: design, construction and maintenance recommendations based on a review of existing systems

In order to better understand factors that contribute to the successful implementation of street scale Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) assessments were undertaken at 22 sites across Melbourne. The sites use a variety of treatment methods with most using Raingardens. The review was undertaken in response to concerns regarding poor plant growth at a number of sites. The inspections found civil works and maintenance (weed and litter control) were generally undertaken well.

 

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Life Cycle Costing of Rainwater Tankas a Component of Water Sensitive Urban Design

Water conservation has become a major issue in Australiain recent times. Additional fresh water supplies are constantly being sought after and rainwater tanks are emerging as a possible solution. Studies have previously focussed on water saving potential of rainwater tanks used in domestic applications but little research has been undertaken on larger multi-storey applications. This paper presents an investigation of the life cycle cost analysis of a 75kL rainwater tank in a hypothetical multistorey residential building in Sydney.

 

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Providing Supplementary Water for Bangalore,India: Towards Water Sensitive Urban Design

Situated on a ridge and at an elevation of 900 metres above sea level, Bangalore in South India has one of India’s most difficult challenges to meet its water requirements. 810 million litres of water per day is pumped in to the city daily for a population of about 6 million. Another 500 million litres per day will be pumped with a new scheme. There is however a limit to water availability ataround 1500 million litres per day. A recent award of a tribunal set up to adjudicate the sharing of river watersbetween 4 states has capped the water availability to Bangalore city at a very low level.

 

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Implementing Water Sensitive Urban Design Through Regulation

Implementation of water sensitive urban design to meet established stormwater quality objectives in Melbourne has until recently occurred through Melbourne Water drainage scheme requirements and funding programs to local government. Significant advances in the regulatory framework for new development to incorporate WSUD have been delivered through the Sustainable Neighbourhoods Clause 56 of the Victoria Planning Provisions. The successful implementation of Clause56 involves local government requiring incorporation of WSUD into residential subdivision development and for management of sites during construction.

 

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Impact of Spatial Variability of Rainfall on Predicted Irrigation Demand: Case Study of Melbourne

Melbourne’s land cover is spatially variable and experiences a strong natural precipitation gradient from west to east. Using precipitation and potential evaporation data, along with land surface characteristics for ten sites across Melbourne, this study investigates spatial differences in evapotranspiration and irrigation demand. Using a water balance model for outdoor water use only, it was found that irrigation demand is largely dependent on the vegetated fraction (gardens and parks) of the sites.

 

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